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Josef Seger (21 March, 1716 – 22 April, 1782) was a Bohemian organist, composer, and educator. After graduating in philosophy from the Charles University in Prague and studying music under Bohuslav Černohorský, and others, Seger became organist of two churches in Prague and remained there until his death. An extremely prolific composer, Seger, became one of the most important representatives of the Czech organ school of the 18th century. He was also an influential teacher: his pupils included Jan Antonín Koželuh and Josef Mysliveček, and his figured bass exercises served many generations of teachers.

Seger was the most prolific Czech organ composer of the 18th century. Hundreds of preludes, fugues, toccatas and other organ pieces survive in manuscript copies, although the attribution to Seger of some of these works is problematic. Generally speaking, his preludes and fugues are short works (their length probably dictated by the limitations imposed by the Catholic liturgy), but they exhibit a fertile harmonic imagination and a perfect grasp of late Baroque counterpoint practice. He also composed masses, motets and psalm settings; all also dominated by archaic counterpoint.

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